NATIONALISM, NATIVE LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE AND THE SPREAD OF ENGLISH: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE CASES OF GUAM, THE PHILIPPINES AND PUERTO RICO



A Dissertation Submitted to theDepartment of Graduate Studies, Faculty of Education University of Puerto Rico In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education

by
Sharon Clampitt-Dunlap
1995

UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO RIO PIEDRAS CAMPUS FACULTY OF EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF GRADUATE STUDIES

Dissertation presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree
Doctor of Education

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ABSTRACT

     In 1898, the United States received Guam, the Philippines and
Puerto Rico from Spain as part of the Paris Treaty.  The
implementation of school systems imported from the United States
began almost immediately, marked by the mandate that all
instruction be given in English.  The results of this and
subsequent language policies formulated for the nation and school
in terms of native language maintenance and the spread of the
English language are the principal subject of research in this
study. An attempt was made to answer the question "What has been
the role of nationalist movements in native language maintenance
in Guam, the Philippines and Puerto Rico when faced with the
possible spread of the English language to the public school
system and other societal institutions?"
     A historical comparative design was used to examine similar
variables in Guam, the Philippines and Puerto Rico. Language
shift and language maintenance factors  including societal
bilingualism, migration, industrialization, the school and other
governmental use of the language, urbanization and the prestige
level of the languages in contact were studied through document
research, field observation and informal interviews. Documents
were used from the years 1898 to 1993. The existence of
nationalist movements that may have played a part in native
language maintenance and language planning efforts were also
looked for in these sources. The three countries were then
compared to expose similarities and differences.
     The major findings of the study included the apparent
relationship between the existence of an educated elite and
native language maintenance.  Language planning efforts aimed at
preservation of the native or national language were found to be
present only if or after the presence of an educated was on the
scene. Whether English was seen as a threat to the native
language or culture was also found to have some relation to the
activities carried out by the intelligentsia.
     The results of this study led to the recognition of the
importance of adequate language planning in order to assure
maintenance of the native language while attempting to
incorporate an additional language into a society.
Recommendations for language planning efforts included planning
for maintenance as well as spread, providing for adequate
institutional support and dissemination of information related to
policy formation and implementation.



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